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Glossary of Terms

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Act 100 Determination - A finding issued by the PA Department of Agriculture on the basis of studies and a presentation to the Agricultural Lands Condemnation Approval Board (ALCAB). Section 306 of Pennsylvania Act 100 (Farmlands, December 7, 1979) mandates that studies be performed and a determination be made before agricultural lands can be condemned for transportation purposes.

Aerial Photography - High resolution photographs taken from aircraft which are used to assess features in a study area, which are also used to produce topographic base maps of varying scales for alignment studies, engineering, and final design work.

Affected Environment - The physical features, land, area, or areas to be influenced, affected or created by an alternative alignment under consideration; also includes various social and environmental factors and conditions pertinent to an area.

Agency Coordination - Refers to the process whereby the Department of Transportation contacts, consults, and maintains communication with various public and environmental resource agencies, affording such agencies an opportunity to review and comment upon specific transportation proposals.

Agency Coordination Meeting (ACM) - A monthly gathering of representatives from ten natural resource agencies who review projects. The goal of the ACM is to foster effective agency communications during the development of projects so that environmental issues are identified, clearly understood, and properly addressed early in the process. Project Team representatives present updates on their work to the ACM at several key stages of project development.

Alternative - One of a number of specific proposals, alignments, options, design choices, etc., in a study.

Agricultural Lands Condemnation Approval Board (ALCAB) - A six-person, independent administrative board with jurisdiction over the condemnation of certain types of agricultural lands in Pennsylvania. The Board reviews proposals and presentations made by the Department of Transportation and determines whether there is a prudent or reasonable alternative to the condemnation of lands being used for productive agricultural purposes.

Agricultural Land Preservation Policy (ALPP) - A Pennsylvania law (4 Pa Code, Chapter 7, Section 7.301 et seq.) that all state agencies must support. This policy regulates the conversion of farmland that meets the ALPP definition of "primary agricultural land."

Agricultural Security Area (ASA) - Special areas created at the municipal level and comprising at least 250 acres of viable agricultural land. The properties within an ASA do not have to be contiguous. ALCAB approval is required for Commonwealth agencies to condemn productive agricultural land within an ASA. Projects involving improvements to highways relating to (on or near) existing facilities are exempt from this requirement.

Archaeological Investigations - Cultural resource studies conducted in accordance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended. Depending on the extent and significance of archaeological resources in a study area, investigations may proceed through three phases, each with an increasingly complex level of detail. In Phase I archaeological investigations, a field survey is conducted to provide an inventory of all archaeological resources in a project area that are potentially eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. Phase II investigations are designed to sample the archaeological deposits at a site in order to determine its eligibility for listing in the National Register. Phase III involves data recovery excavation to mitigate the adverse effects to an eligible site. Refer to Department Strike-Off Letter #430-92-29, "Archaeological Procedures for Highway Development," (March 18, 1992).

Average Daily Traffic Volume - The total traffic volume during a given time period in whole days (24-hour periods), greater than one day and less than one year, divided by the number of days in that time period.

Avoidance Alternative - Any proposal that has been developed, modified, shifted or downsized specifically in order to avoid affecting one or more resources (as in cultural, agricultural, or natural resources) regarded as significant.

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Build Out - Estimated future development during the identified study period.

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Capability Class - Categories used by the USDA, NRCS, to designate the suitability of soil phases for most farming practices. There are eight capability classes, which are denoted with the Roman numerals I through VIII. Capability Class I soils have the fewest limitations for agriculture and the widest range of use while Capability Class VIII soils have the most limitations to agricultural use. The capability class designations are found in the County soil surveys published by the USDA.

Capacity - The maximum number of vehicles that can reasonably be expected to pass over a lane or a roadway during a given time period under prevailing roadway and traffic conditions. Typically, the maximum expressway capacity for automobiles is 2,000 vehicles per lane per hour.

Council of Economic Quality (CEQ) - The President's Council on Environmental Quality is the agency responsible for the oversight and development of national environmental policy. Created by NEPA, CEQ also shares this responsibility with the EPA.

Community Advisory Committee (CAC) - A group of local elected officials and representatives from local civic organizations that serve as a media for relay of information and ideas between PENNDOT and the public.

Comprehensive Plan - The general, inclusive, long-range statement of the future development of a community. The plan is typically a map accompanied by description and supplemented by policy statements that direct future capital improvements in an area.

Conceptual Mitigation - The early, generalized identification of measures that would minimize or avoid anticipated environmental consequences associated with a given alternative. Typically, conceptual mitigation ideas are discussed prior to the concluding stages of an environmental study, well before many of the ideas are further worked upon, refined or committed.

Conformity - The US Clean Air Act stipulates that any approved transportation project, plan, or program must conform to the State Implementation Plan, a document with prescribed procedures for the implementation, maintenance and enforcement of primary and secondary pollutants.

Consensus - The point at which agencies and the public offer their agreement with recommendations or findings. Lancaster County and PENNDOT work to build consensus through continuing coordination, especially ACMs and Public Meetings. A study or project generally does not proceed to the next major stage in development until it has been determined that every effort to address the concerns of agencies and the public have been made. Although unanimous consensus is seldom achieved, continuous coordination throughout the study process is expected to gain support from most agencies and much of the public.

Conservation Easement - Private land whose development rights are held by someone other than the landowner, usually a government entity or a conservation organization.

Construction Phase - The last of the five phases of PENNDOT's Transportation Project Development Process in which a contractor selected by PENNDOT constructs the improvement alternative.

Controlled Access - Partial access restriction that gives preference to through traffic. Also provides for connections to selected public routes and to certain other adjacent locations where vehicles can enter or leave a roadway safely without interfering wtih the through traffic.

Cooperating Agency - As defined in the Council on Environmental Quality's Regulations for implementing the Procedural Provisions of the NEPA, "any organization other than a lead agency which has jurisdiction by law or special expertise with respect to any environmental impact involved in…(a) major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment." The CEQ emphasizes that agency cooperation should begin early in the NEPA process.

Cumulative Effects (as per NEPA) - Effects that are the result of incremental impacts of an action, when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions, regardless of which agency (Federal or non-Federal) or person undertakes such actions.

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Database - A computer-based table of numbers and text information arranged in rows (records) and columns (fields).

Deed Restriction - Clauses included in a property deed which restrict the property owner's use of the land. Often, the term is used to refer to deed restrictions which are intended to preserve land for agricultural use. Such deed restrictions typically prohibit the property owner from developing the land in such a way that the land is irretrievably lost to farming. Commonwealth agencies and County governments can create farmland deed restrictions under the authority of PA Act 43, PA Act 442, or PA Act 1981-48. Conservation organizations can also create deed restrictions through normal real estate transactions.

Design Criteria - Established state and national standards and procedures that guide the establishment of roadway layouts, alignments, geometry, and dimensions for specified types of highways in certain defined conditions. The principal design criteria for highways are traffic volume, design speed, the physical characteristics of vehicles, the classification of vehicles, and the percentage of various vehicle classification types that use the highway.

Design Exception - An approval issued by a state or Federal agency to permit a certain deviation from a specified, accepted standard granted on the basis of a report explaining the need for the exception and the consequences that will result from the action.

Design Location Study - Engineering evaluations of existing conditions, alternative design features, and costs related to route location. Findings of this study, which is conducted during the Preliminary Design Phase of transportation project development, help determine the most feasible and desirable highway location between a given set of termini. Data from a Design Location Study, which may include both Phase I and Phase II Alternatives Analysis as defined in PENNDOT's Transportation Project Development Process, is typically compiled into a written report.

Design Manual - PA Department of Transportation Publication 10, published in six volumes, which defines criteria, processes, and procedures for the evaluation, assessment, engineering design, and development of highway and bridge projects.

Design Year - The future year specified and used by planners and engineers for the design of a proposed improvement. The design year of an improved highway facility is typically 20 years after the facility has been opened to traffic.

Determination of Effect - A finding made by the Department, in consultation with the State Historic Preservation Officer, which determines whether a proposed project affects a property included on or eligible for the National Register of Historic Places.

Determination of Eligibility - The process of assembling documentation to render professional evaluation of the significance of an historic property. The Department, in consultation with the State Historic Preservation Officer, applies National Register of Historic Places criteria when deciding matters of historical significance.

Direct Effects - Influences or occurrences caused by a given action and occurring at the same time and place as the action. Changes in noise levels, traffic volumes, or visual conditions are some examples of direct effects of a new highway.

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Ecosystem - A community of interacting organisms (including people) and their environment that functions together to sustain life.

Environmental - 1) In a scientific context, a combination of external or extrinsic conditions present in nature. 2) In a planning context, a category of analytical studies of aesthetic values, ecological resources, cultural (historical) resources, sociological and economic conditions, etc.

Environmental Features - Significant resources, facilities, or other features of a study area located in or adjacent to an existing or proposed corridor study area that serve to restrain, restrict, or prevent the ready implementation of proposed transportation improvements in a given area; may include natural or physical resources, important structures, communities facilities, or topographic features.

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) - As defined in the CEQ Regulations, a detailed written report that provides "full and fair discussion of significant environmental impacts and (informs) decision-makers and the public of the reasonable alternatives which would avoid or minimize adverse impacts or enhance the quality of the human environment." The Draft EIS evaluates a range of reasonable alternatives and their associated impacts and presents a preferred alternative if one option is clearly favored above the others. After Department review, the Draft EIS is circulated among agencies and the public for comment. Following the Public Hearing held to formally record comments on the Draft, a Final EIS is prepared incorporating public and agency input and recommending a selected alternative.

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Farmland of Local Importance - Land identified by the concerned local agencies as important for the production of food, feed, fiber, and forage even though it was not designated as farmland of national or statewide importance.

Farmland of Statewide Importance - Land that has been designated by the State Rural Development Committee as being of statewide importance for the production of food, feed, fiber, and forage.

Farmland Protection Policy Act (FPPA) Farmland - Soil phases/areas protected by the FPPA and 7 CFR 658. FPPA soils include prime farmland, unique farmland, farmland of statewide importance, and farmland of local importance.

Federal Aid Project - An activity, study, survey, project, or other work related to transportation authorized in advance by the Federal Highway Administration, and which is paid for either partially or fully by public funds.

Federal Register - A daily publication of the US Government Printing Office that contains notices, announcements, regulations, and other official pronouncements of US Government administrative agencies. Various printed announcements and findings related to specified environmental matters and transportation projects and activities appear in this publication.

Final Design Phase - The fourth of the five phases of PENNDOT's Transportation Project Development Process. It involves the development of detailed working drawings, specifications, and estimates for approved transportation projects in addition to right-of-way acquisition, utility relocation, and construction contract advertisement and award.

Free Access - The lowest condition of access control on state highways which allows an unlimited number of private driveway connections, intersections at grade, field entrance, or other land service linkages that give vehicles or pedestrians access to the highways.

Functional Roadway Classification - The organization of roadways into a hierarchy based on the character of service provided. Typical classifications included arterial, local, and collector roadways.

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Geographic Information System (GIS) - A computer-based system that links the geographic location of map features to text information or databases.

Geometric Design - Pertains to those engineering activities involving standards and procedures for establishing the horizontal and vertical alignment and dimensions of slopes of a highway. It includes engineering work involved with proportioning the visible elements of a facility, tailoring the highway to the terrain, the controls of environmental and land space usage, and the requirements of the highway user, individually and collectively.

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Historic Resource - A building, structure, site, district, or object which is significant in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, and culture.

Hazardous Waste - An environmental impact category encompassing all types of permitted and unregulated materials, sites, and substance which require prudent handling and treatment to prevent harm or danger. Sites are often referred to as Waste Management Sites.

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Impacts - Positive or negative effects upon the natural or social environment resulting from transportation projects.

Indirect Effects (see Secondary Effects) - Effects that can be expected to result from a given action that occur later in time or further removed in distance; for example, induced changes to land use patterns, population density, or growth rate.

Interagency Consensus on Integrating NEPA and Section 404 - In response to the ISTEA of 1991, an interagency task force agreed to combine the Environmental Protection Agency's NEPA process with the US Army Corps of Engineers' review of applications for permits under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. This integrated review process is intended to streamline the Transportation Project Development Process by maximizing agency participation throughout.

Intermodal Relationships - Coordination of different modes of transportation such as rail, air, highways, and bicycle paths during the planning and development of a study.

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Jurisdictional Determination (JD) - A site survey performed by the US Army Corps of Engineers to officially determine whether or not a given parcel of land is subject to wetlands regulations, and if so, the extent of the area.

Joint Permit - The permit required for the obstruction and encroachment of Pennsylvania Waters or Wetlands. The joint permit eliminates the need for separate permit applications at the State and Federal levels. One joint permit is submitted for Pennsylvania's water obstruction and encroachment permit and a Federal (US Army Corps of Engineers) Section 9, Section 10, or Section 404 permit. The permit is also considered by the State as a request for water quality certification under Section 401 of the Federal Clean Water Act.

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Load Agency - A state or Federal agency taking primary responsibility for preparing an engineering or environmental document.

Legal Notice - A formal announcement or finding published by the Department in a periodical or newspaper to provide official public notice of an action or approval of interest to the public.

Level of Service (LOS) - Combinations of operating conditions that can occur on a given lane or roadway when it is accommodating various traffic volumes.

Limited Access Highway - A highway on which owners or occupants of abutting lands and other persons have no legal right of access except at points and in the manner determined by the authority having jurisdiction over the highway.

Logical Termini - Known features (land uses, economic areas, population concentrations, cross route locations, etc.) at either end of a proposed transportation route that enhance good planning and which serve to make the route usable. Logical termini are considered rational end points for a transportation improvement.

Long-Range Transportation Plan - Identifies regional transportation goals, issues, and needs and defines the direction for regional planning, programming, and project development over a 20-year period.

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Major Investment Study (MIS) - A study required by FHWA and FTA in their Metropolitan Planning Final Rules of November 29, 1993. The MIS is an evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative transportation investments in attaining local, State, and regional goals and objectives for the metropolitan area. The study uses a cooperative process which leads to a decision on the design concept and fiscal scope of an investment(s). The recommended design concepts(s) may result in additional development as a transportation project(s).

Major Metropolitan Transportation Investment - A major highway or transit improvement of substantial cost that is expected to have a significant effect on capacity, traffic flow, level of service, or mode share at the transportation corridor or sub area scale.

Memorandum of Agreement - Lists certain binding historic resource commitments and outlines measures to avoid, mitigate, or accept the adverse effects on a given historic resource. The MOA is part of requirements outlined in Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. It must be signed by agencies such as the State Historic Preservation Officer, the FHWA, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and the Department.

Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) - A planning group designated for each urban area with a population of 50,000 or more. Members include both private citizens and local government officials. A MPO addresses Federal aid planning mandates by producing local area transportation plans or transportation improvement programs on an annual or biannual basis, or by employing other strategies that make existing systems more efficient.

Mitigation Measures - Specific design commitments made with the resource agencies and other agencies during the environmental evaluation and study process that serve to moderate or lessen impacts derived from the proposed action. These measures may include planning and development commitments, environmental measures, and right-of-way improvements. These commitments are implemented during construction or post-construction.

Mitigation Report - A summary document prepared by the originating office for every Final EIS to inform design consultants, value engineering teams, project engineers, and contractors of committed project design, operational and construction measures to minimize or avoid the anticipated environmental consequences. This report is an internal informational document subject to modification, if necessary, as the project proceeds through final design.

Modal Split - The proportion of trips made on the roadway versus other modes of travel such as the public transit system.

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Needs Service Area - A discrete, defined expanse of land, defined by radius or geometric bounds, to identify the extent of demand, usage, or influence that is present and that is likely to be served by a transportation improvement in a given area. Knowledge of needs service is useful for differentiating between predominant types of service and user desires, including usage by local, area, regional, through or interstate, and long-distance traffic.

Non-Attainment Areas - Any County or other defined geographic region that the EPA has designated as a non-attainment area for a transportation related pollutant(s) (such as ozone) for which National Ambient Air Quality Standards exist. The areas are ranked by the severity of their problem using marginal, moderate, serious, severe, or extreme as designations. In accordance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, these areas must take specific emission reduction measures.

No-Build Alternative (also known as "No-Action Alternative") - Option of maintaining the status quo by not building transportation improvements. Usually results in eventual deterioration of existing transportation conditions. Serves as a baseline for comparison of "Build" Alternatives.

Notice of Intent - Announcement in the Federal Register advising interested parties that an EPA will be prepared and circulated for a given project.

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Origin-Destination Survey - A survey conducted of the traffic using the study area roadway system to determine/document current traffic patterns.

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Pennsylvania Modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure (PAMHEP) - A simplified version of the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) for assessing and mitigating impacts to fish and wildlife from proposed water and land resource development projects.

Peak Hour - Time when a highway carries its highest volume of traffic, usually the morning or evening "rush" period when commuters travel to and from work.

PENNDOT Ten-Step Process - The preliminary design phase of PENNDOT's Transportation Project Development Process. The Ten-Step Process is the framework for the involvement of resource agencies and the public in the environmental and alternative evaluations of project studies (refer to PENNDOT's Environmental Impact Statement Handbook, Publication No. 278, August 1993).

Permit - Written permission from a governmental agency to take certain action during the Transportation Project Development Process (relating to, for example, solid waste management underground storage tanks, coastal areas, etc.). Specifically, the US Army Corps of Engineers issues permits for the construction, excavation, depositing of material, etc. in navigable waters; and, for the discharge of dredged or fill materials into US waters. Also, the PA Department of Environmental Protection issues water quality certifications for actions that result in discharge into regulated waters.

Phase I Alternatives Analysis (also known as Preliminary Alternatives Analysis) - Within the Preliminary Design Phase are two sub-phases (Phase I and Phase II) during which the Project Team attempts to choose the most reasonable, practical, cost-effective, technically sound, and environmentally sensitive transportation improvements. During Phase I (Step 4 of the Transportation Project Development Process), a wide range of preliminary study alternatives is developed and evaluated. Following engineering feasibility and environmental assessments, the long, initial list of alternatives is narrowed down, and the least desirable alternatives are dismissed from further study. A narrower range of alternatives is then carried forward into Phase II.

Phase II Alternatives Analysis (also known as Detailed Alternatives Analysis) - During Phase II, the second sub-phase of the Preliminary Design Phase (and Step 5 of the Transportation Project Development Process), the smaller range of alternatives is evaluated in greater detail. The ultimate goal of detailed analysis is to select an alternative that satisfies project needs while balancing transportation, community, and environmental objectives. In order to achieve this, engineering and environmental studies are combined. Specifically: impacts of each Phase II alternative are identified and quantified; alternatives are compared on the basis of their consequences; and designs are refined to avoid, minimize, or mitigate impacts. These analyses are presented in the EIS, and in many cases, one alternative is recommended as preferred.

Point-of-Access Study - An engineering evaluation performed for a completed section of limited access highway to determine the influence to existing levels of service and to adjacent highway facilities of a new or revised access point (ramp or interchange).

Preliminary Engineering - Early phases of technical studies undertaken to determine all relevant aspects of transportation location, to identify feasible route alternatives or design options, and to assess various cost and benefit parameters before advancing the project into more detailed final design development.

Prime Farmland - Land that has the best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for producing food, feed, fiber, forage, oil seed, and other agricultural crops with minimum inputs of fuel, fertilizer, pesticides, and labor and without intolerable soil erosion, as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture. It does not include land that is already committed to urban development or storage.

Problem Statement - A concise narrative, prepared at the outset of a project or study or as part of a project needs study, defining the fundamental situation or circumstance to be solved. A problem statement will generally describe a particular situation in which an expected level of performance is not being achieved, and will list one or more important factors which cause or contribute to the unacceptable performance.

Productive Agricultural Land - (Definitions found in PA Act 1981-43, Section 3, as amended.) Any land used for production, commercial purposes, crops, livestock, and livestock products, including the processing or retail marketing of such crops, livestock, or livestock products if more than 50 percent of such proposed merchandised products are produced by the farm operator.

Project Limits - The physical end points of a proposed alternative or study, usually designated at geographic or municipal boundaries, at intersections, at roadway segments where cross sections change, or at the beginning or end of numbered state traffic routes.

Project Need Statement - A statement of specific transportation problems and/or deficiencies which have resulted in the search for improvements. Project needs are typically based on technical information and analyses.

Project Purpose - A broad statement of the overall intended objective to be achieved by a proposed transportation improvement.

Public Hearing - A meeting designed to afford the public the fullest opportunity to express support of or opposition to a transportation project in an open forum at which a verbatim record (transcript) of the proceedings is kept.

Public Meeting - An announced meeting conducted by transportation officials designed to facilitate participation in the decision-making process and to assist the public in gaining an informed view of a proposed project at any level of the Transportation Project Development Process. Also, such a gathering may be referred to as a Public Information Meeting.

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Qualitative Analysis - A general concept which categorizes a process used in certain types of environmental or route location studies where multiple factors are compared in a systematic and comprehensive manner on the basis of sound judgment. Factors analyzed by using a qualitative analysis are such that they cannot be measured in monetary terms, have no apparent common denominators, and are not readily quantifiable.

Quantitative Analysis - The process used in certain economic, cost-benefit, engineering, or traffic studies where multiple factors, elements, and/or outcomes are evaluated and compared by the use of measurable data. Certain mathematical models, formulas, numerical indices, rankings, and value matrices may be used to assist with such a process.

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Record of Decision (ROD) - A document prepared by the Division Office of the FHWA that presents the basis for selecting and approving a specific transportation proposal that has been evaluated through the various environmental and engineering studies of the Transportation Project Development Process. Typically, the Record of Decision identifies the alternative selected in the Final EIS, the alternatives considered, measures to minimize harm, monitoring or enforcement programs, and an itemized list of commitments and mitigation measures.

Regulatory Agency - An agency empowered to issue permits or recommend approval or denial of a permit.

Resource Agencies - A group of approximately ten Federal and state agencies or commissions which have various regulatory, jurisdictional, and/or administrative responsibilities in a variety of subject areas that are part of the Transportation Project Development Process. These agencies and commissions are involved in participating in project meetings, reviewing and evaluating Department studies, commenting on documents, and granting certain approvals.

Right-of-Way - Land, property, or interest therein acquired for and devoted to transportation purposes, including construction, maintenance, operations, and protection of a facility.

Rural Historic Landscape - For the purposes of the National Register of Historic Places, a rural historic landscape is defined as a geographical area that historically has been used by people or shaped or modified by human activity, occupancy, or intervention and that possesses a significant concentration, linkage or continuity of areas of land use, vegetation, buildings and structures, roads and waterways, and natural features.

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Safety Improvements - Roadway maintenance activities and smaller construction projects that correct conditions occurring on or alongside an existing highway. Typically involves minor widening, resurfacing, regrading roadsides, hazard or obstacle elimination, guiderail installation, and miscellaneous maintenance.

Secondary Effects - A general term to define impacts which are caused by a specific action and which take place later in time or further removed in distance but are still reasonably foreseeable. Secondary effects can be indeterminate, may not be easily recognized, and can be difficult to identify and evaluate.

State Implementation Plan - A document prepared by state government officials specifying measures to be used in the attainment and maintenance of National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

Study Area - A geographic area selected and defined at the outset of engineering or environmental evaluations, which is sufficiently adequate in size to address all pertinent project matters occurring within it.

System Linkage - Interconnection of roadway segments that comprise an overall transportation network. Also, a discussion of how a proposed project fits into the existing and future transportation system (network) and how it contributes to developing a sound transportation network in an area or region. The terms connector road, missing link, gap completion, circumferential link, or beltway segment are sometimes used to describe this concept.

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Technical File - A compilation of raw data from all of the technical studies (e.g. traffic counts, noise and air quality analyses, wetland surveys) conducted for a study.

Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) - A subdivision of the project (or study) area for which demographic data are collected in order to estimate traffic volume. The arrival and departure pattern of the estimated traffic is also organized by TAZ's.

Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) - A long-range transportation plan established by the MPOs in each urbanized area which consists of a prioritized list of projects or project segments to be carried out within the next three years after adoption of the TIP.

Transportation Project Development Process - PENNDOT's procedures for advancing a transportation improvement project from concept to construction which are divided into five Phases, from Planning to Construction. The philosophy behind the process emphasizes the integration of engineering and environmental studies, and continuous coordination among Department offices, state and Federal resource agencies, and the public. The ultimate goal is to select, design and construct the most reasonable, practical, cost-effective, technically sound, and environmentally sensitive transportation improvement option.

Transportation Systems Management (TSM) Alternative - TSM maximizes the utilization and efficiency of the present transportation system. This limited construction option is always evaluated when major urban area construction activities are proposed, but since ISTEA, it is considered more often for other projects. Components of a TSM Alternative can include fringe parking, ridesharing, bus transfer facilities, traffic signal time optimization, high occupancy vehicle lanes, and other administrative or management strategies which facilitate the movement of people.

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Unique Farmland - Land other than prime farmland that is used for production of specific high-value food and fiber crops, as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture. Unique farmland possesses a special combination of soil quality, location, growing season, and moisture supply needed to economically produce sustained high quality or high yields of specific crops when treated and managed according to acceptable farm methods. Examples of such crops include citrus, tree nuts, olives, cranberries, fruits, and vegetables.

Urban Area - An area having a Center City population of 50,000 or more as defined by the 1990 US Census; may also include other major population concentrations where a systems planning study is deemed necessary.

Urban Growth Boundary (UGB) - As defined for Lancaster County, this is a boundary around an urban area in the County that is intended to direct growth in the urban area where there is a full range of public facilities and services available to support residential economic development and to prevent development from sprawling into rural areas.

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Value Engineering - An analysis of materials, processes, and products in which functions are related to cost and from which a selection may be made so as to achieve the desired function at the lowest overall cost consistent with performance.

Village Growth Boundary (VGB) - As defined for Lancaster County, this is a boundary around a rural village in the County that is intended to direct a limited amount of growth in the village area which serves as a community center for the rural population and to prevent development from sprawling.

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Wetland Identification/Delineation and Functional Assessment Report - Provides both written and illustrated data to define the boundaries of those topographic features within a study area and which meet the Federal definition of "wetland" as contained in 33 CFR 323.3(c). A delineation report represents the first step in the overall wetland study process, evaluates the importance of a wetland, and ultimately assesses the effects of a project on a wetland.

Wetland Finding Procedure - The wetland finding procedure establishes the criteria and procedures for satisfying the wetland finding requirements of Executive Order 11990. It requires documentation of wetlands associated with the project including a description of the wetlands, identification of wetlands impacts, documentation of alternatives analysis, and development of a mitigation plan for unavoidable wetland impacts.

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